By Philippe Rigaux, Michel Scholl, Agnès Voisard
Spatial Databases is the 1st unified, in-depth remedy of designated concepts for facing spatial information, quite within the box of geographic info structures (GIS). This e-book surveys a variety of options, corresponding to spatial information types, algorithms, and indexing equipment, constructed to deal with particular gains of spatial information that aren't competently dealt with through mainstream DBMS technology.
The publication additionally studies advertisement strategies to geographic facts dealing with: ArcInfo, ArcView, and Smallworld GISs; and extensions to the relational version, PostgreSQL and Oracle Spatial. The authors study those underlying GIS applied sciences, check their strengths and weaknesses, and think about particular makes use of for which each and every product is most fitted.
* Examines the strengths of varied question languages and techniques to question processing.
* Explains using computational geometry in spatial databases GISs, offering useful historical past and an in-depth examine key algorithms.
* Covers spatial entry equipment, together with the R-tree and several other space-driven constructions, and is full of dozens of precious illustrations.
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It doesn't matter what DBMS you're using—Oracle, DB2, SQL Server, MySQL, PostgreSQL—misunderstandings can regularly come up over the suitable meanings of phrases, misunderstandings which may have a significant influence at the luck of your database tasks. for instance, listed here are a few universal database phrases: characteristic, BCNF, consistency, denormalization, predicate, repeating staff, subscribe to dependency.
Additional info for Spatial Databases: With Application to GIS (The Morgan Kaufmann Series in Data Management Systems)
Logical level (step 2). At this stage, the conceptual schema is translated into the data model of a particular DBMS. In the context of relational databases, one follows some simple transformation rules, and describes the relational schema with the data definition language (DDL). Generally speaking, within a DBMS environment, manipulating data is done through expressing queries and other operations (updates, inserts, and so on) in the data manipulation language (DML). One of the reasons for the success of relational DBMS is the existence of a widely accepted query language named SQL, uniformly used in all relational systems.
First, the space of interest is Rd , together with the Euclidean distance. We refer to it as the Euclidean space, and, unless otherwise specified, we assume that dimension d is 2. Points are elements of this space. A point has a pair of (Cartesian) coordinates that, according to common use, we denote as x (the abscissa) and y (the ordinate). Although points in the Euclidean plane are quite useful to represent the location and shape of objects of the Earth’s surface, it should be underlined that the latter is a globe (hence a curved surface), and that we need a conversion, called a map projection, to map geographic entities onto a planar representation.
For instance, the input can be a known set of customer locations, a known transportation system, or a known set of available plots on which to build. The output is the best location to maximize sales. Allocation. This problem (dual with the location problem) deals with the allocation of quantities (resources) among supply and demand points. Typical applications are geomarketing applications and urban planning. Location/allocation combination. The location and allocation functions are often used simultaneously in many GIS applications.