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New PDF release: Differential and Difference Equations with Applications:

Aimed toward the neighborhood of mathematicians engaged on traditional and partial differential equations, distinction equations, and useful equations, this publication includes chosen papers in accordance with the shows on the overseas convention on Differential & distinction Equations and functions (ICDDEA) 2015, devoted to the reminiscence of Professor Georg promote.

Download e-book for kindle: D.D. Kosambi: Selected Works in Mathematics and Statistics by Ramakrishna Ramaswamy

This ebook fills an enormous hole in reports on D. D. Kosambi. For the 1st time, the mathematical paintings of Kosambi is defined, accumulated and awarded in a way that's obtainable to non-mathematicians to boot. a couple of his papers which are tricky to procure in those components are made on hand right here.

Additional info for Les séries mathématiques (Que sais-je? N°1567)

Example text

2q C 1/ for some integer q, and hence, x y is an odd integer. Consequently, it has been proven that if x and y are odd integers, then x y is an odd integer. Writing Guidelines for Mathematics Proofs At the risk of oversimplification, doing mathematics can be considered to have two distinct stages. The first stage is to convince yourself that you have solved the problem or proved a conjecture. This stage is a creative one and is quite often how mathematics is actually done. The second equally important stage is to convince other people that you have solved the problem or proved the conjecture.

P is necessary and sufficient for Q. 40 Chapter 2. Logical Reasoning Tautologies and Contradictions Definition. A tautology is a compound statement S that is true for all possible combinations of truth values of the component statements that are part of S . A contradiction is a compound statement that is false for all possible combinations of truth values of the component statements that are part of S . That is, a tautology is necessarily true in all circumstances, and a contradiction is necessarily false in all circumstances.

P ^ Q/ and :P _ :Q logically equivalent? 3. Suppose that the statement “I will play golf and I will mow the lawn” is false. Then its negation is true. Write the negation of this statement in the form of a disjunction. Does this make sense? Sometimes we actually use logical reasoning in our everyday living! Perhaps you can imagine a parent making the following two statements. 44 Chapter 2. Logical Reasoning Statement 1 Statement 2 If you do not clean your room, then you cannot watch TV. You clean your room or you cannot watch TV.