By Henri Lammens
In this e-book, initially released in 1929, Lammens is essentially keen on the matter of Mohammad’s character and prophetic occupation – one of many imperative problems with Islamic historical past. He argues that Mohammad’s profession needs to be thought of in the context of the city and mercantile society of 17th century Mecca and rejects the concept that Islam was once mostly the production of a nomadic setting.
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Extra info for Islam: Beliefs and Institutions (Routledge Library Editions) (Volume 5)
As for the interpolation ‘the Prophet has said', this always refers to something contained in the Sunna, never to a text in the Qoran. Throughout the latter it is Allah who is supposed to speak in the first person, when he is not addressing the Prophet, who is merely his mouthpiece. Muhammadan orthodoxy considers the Qoran as ‘uncreated', in the sense not only that it reproduces a copy conforming to the prototype of the divine revelation, but that in its actual form, in its phonetic and graphic reproduction, in the linguistic garb of the Arab tongue, it is identical and co-eternal with its celestial original.
He is reputed to have been esteemed for his loyalty, was of a thoughtful turn of mind and interested himself in questions of religion which were treated with indifference by his sceptical fellow-citizens. His journeys outside of Mekka and even of Arabia offer nothing improbable, as all the Quraishites were engaged in trading by caravan. The Qoran frequently alludes to these travels and even to sea-voyages. In the course of these expeditions the Sira has it that he came into contact with Christian monks.
CONQUEST OF MEKKA. In that metropolis, all clear-sighted men judged the game irretrievably lost for Mekka. Without showing his hand, Muhammad entered into relations with the fittest man amongst the Quraishites, Abu Sufyan (v. p. 14), whose daughter, Umm Habiba, sister to the future Caliph Mu'awiya, he had just married. Having hastened to Medina on pretext of renewing the Hudaibiyya pact, the Quraishite leader undertook secretly to facilitate his son-in-law's entry into his native town. He would distract the attention of his fellow-citizens and prevent them from taking any military precautions.